The ‘hairiness’ of the floral filaments and leaves feature prominently in the taxonomic treatment of T. ciliata. 2015). 235: 25-34; With extended English summary and English captions; 26 ref, Nautiyal AR, Purohit AN, 1988., Greenhill WL, Dadswell HE, 1940. Agri-horti systems adopted by farmers in the Doon valley (Uttar Pradesh, India). ... An aromatic oil can be extracted from the fruit[303. 1.1 So pl. doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Wood PJ, 1972. Some new Hyphomycetes associated with leaf spots of trees in India. Toona ciliata. Australia: CSIRO Publishing. Improved growth rates of red cedar (Toona australis (F. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 43:27-31, Wali-ur-Rehman, 1993. Turrialba, 22(4):398-402, Grijpma P, 1974. This causes dieback and a multi-branched tree with little commercial value. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. The fruits of T. ciliata are dry, oblong capsules with five valves and thin walls, typically 20–30 × 8–12 mm (Boland et al., 2006). 1: 131. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The white flowers are in panicles, strongly perfumed. T. ciliata is invasive in Tonga, although few details are available. Monogr. More information about modern web browsers can be found at 1 Introduction.|toona-ciliata.html, Jain NC, 1967. 679. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations: Wood quality and utilization of tropical species. T. ciliata is light-demanding and shade-intolerant, growing in forest gaps, including riparian habitats. Woolia on the Richmond River, Mamin & Mu… In: Agriculture Handbook no. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 19(3):476-478; 8 ref, Lowman MD, 1985. Indian Forester, 127(4):487-488; 7 ref, Chandra A, Pant SC, 1981. It occurs naturally across much of South and Southeast Asia – from Pakistan and western China to Indonesia and Malaysia – and across parts of Oceania, including Australia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). In Australia, the species flowers from September to December (Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, 2013). Family Meliaceae . 6 (4), 1094-1106., Little EL, Skolmen RG, 1989. It was introduced in 1918 for forestry plantations, using stock from Australia (Little and Skolmen, 1989). australis. PSW-283, 4 pp, Weber E, 2003. The leaves are alternate, pinnate and consist of 3-12 leaflets. Plantation grown tropical timbers. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Effect of elevation and temperature on seed germination of some Himalayan tree species. T. ciliata is mostly grown for its versatile timber, which is used for building houses and ships, and for high-value goods such as furniture, musical instruments, carvings, and numerous other uses (Lemmens, 2008). Volumes I & II. Marine Biodeterioration. Studies on the shootborer Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lep., Pyralidae). Resistance of Meliaceae against the shoot borer Hypsipyla with particular reference to Toona ciliata M.J. Roem. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India, 27(1):22-29; BLL; 3 ref, Chaturvedi AN, 1971. This moth does not attack commercial plantings of Asian/African/Australian native meliaceas in South America. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Kandy, Sri Lanka, 20-23 August 1996, 22-23; 5 ref, Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. [Un nouveau programme de recherches au Sabah: (2) les arbres.] When planted as an exotic, the climatic conditions may differ a little from those experienced within its natural range. Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Silvicultura em Sao Paulo, 10: 109-118; 30 ref, Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2012. ; 2 ref, Qasem MA, Hoque MS, 1972. For. Indian Forester, 109(1):17-24; 10 ref, Kliejunas JT, 1979. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 2. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 5(1-2):126-129, Anon, 1963. Coppicing to convert small cull trees to growing stock. ]; 16 ref, Qasem MA, Hannan MO, Khaleque MA, Hoque MS, 1981. Cedrela toona. II. [16], Toona ciliata reproduces by seed. Timber is currently also harvested in New Guinea. Range Exp. [8], The southernmost limit of natural distribution is on basaltic soils, growing west of the Princes Highway near the village of Termeil, south of Ulladulla, southern Illawarra, New South Wales. Weber (2003) concluded that little is known about the ecology of T. ciliata as an invasive species. Sow Toona ciliata seeds just under the surface of a well drained and rich potting mix, the seeds just want to be weighted down so they don’t float off when watered (seriously, you don’t want to bury them too deep!). Plant of the Month. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD, 2006. Monogr. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.90. ; 1 ref, Streets RJ, 1962. Syn. Some machining properties of five hardwoods of Bangladesh. 2, Linaceae to Moringaceae. Pittieria, No. Genus: Toona Species 'Var': ciliata Common Name: 'Australian Red Cedar' Quick Facts: A large deciduous tree. The cedar tip moth lays its eggs on the tree's leading shoot, allowing the larvae to burrow into the stem. DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Christopher Dixon, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Allergic contact dermatitis to multiple sawdust allergens. var australis C. DC. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2011),,|toona-ciliata.html,, Pandey KN, Mandhu Mohan, Gupta RC, 1986. Wallingford, UK: CABI, GBIF, 2015. Toona ciliata M. Roem. The leaflets are hairless or sparsely hairy (Wagner et al., 1999). Planta Medica, 28(1):52-55; BLL. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Moths. The Australian red cedar, Toona australis (F.Muell.) [1 ref. The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is 26–31°C and the mean minimum of the coldest month 5–10°C, with trees at higher altitudes experiencing occasional frosts (Boland et al., 2006). USDA Forest Service Research Note, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Annals of Forestry 4(2): 170-174, Sattar MA, 1987. Each leaflet resembles an ordinary leaf. check the keys & illustrations at Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China PSW-309, 5 pp, Whitesell CD, 1976. Div. [15] The tree exudes a chemical that the female cedar tip moth seeks out., USDA-NRCS, 2015. In Australia it is found on the east coast between southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. Toona sinensis is a suckering tree and so forms a clump of long straight branches up to 12 meters tall and has long whorls of flamingo-pink leaves at regular intervals up its trunk., Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Click on image to enlarge. XXVII. Turrialba, 26(1):80-85; 16 ref, Pandey KN, Mandhu Mohan, Gupta RC, 1986. var. Australian Red Cedar (called also Toona ciliata, Suren or Indian Mahogany), Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the family Meliaceae which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. Mycological Research, 95(10):1163-1168, Misra RM, 1993. In China, it grows at altitudes of 400–2800 m (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Aust. . The fruit … USDA Forest Service Research Note, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Commonly known as the red cedar, Toona ciliata is a large rainforest tree up to a height of 40–60 metres, which ranges from southern parts of Asia through New Guinea into Australia. Hypsipyla shoot borers of Meliaceae in Australia. Cedrela can be differentiated from Toona by the columnar androgynophore, which is longer than the ovary, and by its seedlings which have entire leaflets (Edmonds, 1995). Building timbers - treatment by non-pressure methods. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. PSW-319, 5 pp. The leaves are widely used as an animal fodder in India (Edmonds, 1993). industr. Occurrence and attack of Hypsipyla robusta Moore on seeds of Toona ciliata M. Roem - a report. Indian Forester, 116(10):843-844; 6 ref, Dobunaba J, Kosi T, 2001. Local … T. ciliata spreads by seed dispersal (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012). Studies on the Meliaceae shoot borer Hypsipyla robusta Moor. June 2/97, 11-12, Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD, 2006. Where planted as an exotic, T. ciliata performs well on fertile soils at the bottom of slopes. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute. [Division of Forest Products, C.S.I.R., Australia. Because its seeds are winged samaras, it has great capacity to spread over short and medium distances by wind-dispersal (anemochory). Powder of bark is used for dysentery and fever. Toona. [11] Heavily and unsustainably exploited in the 19th and early 20th centuries, almost all the large trees have been cut out and the species is essentially commercially extinct. is also a syn. Naturally occurring quinones in tropical woods as allergenic agents. and cedro, known also as Spanish-cedar and tropical-cedar (Cedrela spp.). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). see Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006) & The Plant List Ver. Product Description Features: Toon is a large deciduous tree generally with a wide spreading and handsome crown attaining a height of 45 m and a stem diameter of 2 m. In cities may be of a much smaller stature. Fitoterapia, 66(2):192; 2 ref, Skolmen RG, 1972. The flowers of Toona are borne in large, pendent, densely-branched panicles (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller), bores into the twigs and seed capsules of trees in the mahogany family (Meliaceae), especially mahogany species (Swietenia spp.) Coffee production farming systems in Mexico. [2][3] It is commonly known as the red cedar (a name shared by other trees), toon or toona (also applied to other members of the genus Toona), Australian red cedar,[4] Burma cedar, Indian cedar, Moulmein cedar or the Queensland red cedar. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Silvicultural notes on a visit to Australia and some Pacific islands. As a result, successful planting of Toona ciliata is being observed in many parts of Brazil, including genetic improvement and clonal production. [5] Indigenous Australian names include Polai in the Illawarra. Harms, was placed within Edmonds’ (1995) concept of T. ciliata, and this status has been accepted by Australian botanical authorities. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Journal of Agriculture of The University of Puerto Rico, 58(2):276-278, Wick HL, Burgan RE, 1970. D. J. Mabberley, a world authority on the Meliaceae, supports Edmonds’ 1995 revision (J. Doran, CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products, personal communication, 1998). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 3(3):229-237; 7 ref, Hausen BM, Simatupang MH, Tamolang FN, 1979. Rai (1985) reports that the fruit maturation period in India is March–April, while Troup (1921) reports a period of May–June for northern India. 5 (2). Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Hypsipyla robusta, tun (Toona ciliata) fruit and shoot borer outbreak [in] Punjab. Forestry Commission of New South Wales,, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 22:49. There is a moth that attcks the Red Cedar's new growth- which forses the tree to fork. drupe) about 4 mm across. The genus Toona is composed of only a few species, but phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation are responsible for much of the taxonomic complexity reflected in the literature. The fruits of T. ciliata are dry, oblong capsules with five valves and thin walls, typically 20–30 × 8–12 mm (Boland et al., 2006). 44 pp. australis (F.v.M) C.DC., face a susceptibilidade do ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller, 1948).] 1988; Ramach. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 16(1-2):30-42; 10 ref, Sen-Sarma PK, Gupta BK, 1978. Trial of insecticides and a fumigant against forest seed pests. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Floyd AG, 1989. It is the only species of Hypsipyla in Florida, where it is a pest of West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoniJacquin), a native tree that is f… Studies on seed insect pests of forest trees. It has been extensively tested in Hawaii and Central/South America (Argentina and Costa Rica), Sri Lanka and Africa (Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania). Cirad Foret: France, Espinoza de Pernia N, 1987. ; 9 pp. Contributions to an integrated control programme of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) in Costa Rica. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. Melbourne, Australia: Government Printer, Nag A, Matai S, 1992. It is in flower in July. Genetic diversity and population structure of Toona ciliata Roem. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. It is also known as Indian mahogany. The density of Australian timbers. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. In 1989, there were reported to be 2300 acres (c. 930 ha) of T. ciliata, with “the best stand” being that planted in 1924 at Round Top Drive, Honolulu (Little and Skolmen, 1989). Cedrela species are attacked by the tip moth Hypsipyla robusta when grafted on to red cedar Toona ciliata. Properties of selected less-known tropical hardwood. 1995. Because of its high-quality timber, the species has been trialled in many countries. ; 73 ref, Grijpma P, Roberts SC, 1975. based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Phythophthora leaf blight of some forest trees. ; PR; 15 ref, Sharma SN, Pandey CN, Kambo AS, 1989. In Malawi, the temperature ranges from about 3°C to 35°C (Streets, 1962). (col.); 146 ref. Nat. In Papua New Guinea, T. ciliata occurs in Central and Morobe provinces on the island of New Guinea, as well as on the island of New Britain (Conn and Damas, 2006 onwards). Underplanting trials in ohia rain forests. xxi + 362 pp. T. ciliata occurs with Tetrameles and Stereospermum in Assam; other common associate tree species there include Albizia procera, Amoora wallichii, Artocarpus chaplasha and Pterygota alata (Champion and Seth, 1968). Synonyms Cedrela sinensis 'Flamingo' . Commonwealth Forestry Review, 72(3):181-186; 38 ref, Edmonds JM, 1995. Edmonds (1995) noted that the species does exhibit considerable variation in filament pubescence. [5], Toona ciliata - red leaves in September, Mount Keira, Illawarra, NSW, Toona ciliata bark, tree near Macksville, New South Wales, Australia, Stand of approximately 10 mature Toona ciliata, south of Drake, New South Wales, a rare sighting in this area, Two-year-old red cedar, growing in a backyard, Casino, Australia, A 60-year-old Toona ciliata var. It was used extensively for furniture, wood panelling and construction, including shipbuilding, and was referred to as "red gold" by Australian settlers. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 29(3):199-202; 2 tab. ], Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. 35 (1), (8-16). Silent Valley 50. Hypsipyla shoot borers of Meliaceae in Papua New Guinea. xvi + 687 pp. Research Results Queensland Department of Forestry, No. Desoxycedrelone-a new tetranortriterpenoid from Cedrela toona [Toona ciliata] heartwood. Plants with glabrescent or sparsely pilose/villous filaments show a more restricted distribution within this Northern Hemisphere range. ciliata was listed as a wild endangered species under secondary national protection ().The natural distribution area of T. ciliata is limited to East Asia, South Asia and Australia. T. ciliata closely resembles the other four species of Toona, and both fruits and flowers are required for a certain identification (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). The species has been grown on small South Pacific oceanic islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and the Solomon Islands (Streets, 1962). Austr. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Pacif. 139. Landbouwhogeschool te Wageningen, The. Toona ciliata M.Roem. With a large buttressed base, the stem diameter can be as large as 2 metres. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the mahogany family which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. If you burn the branches these too are scented and are often burnt in temples in Asia to perfume the temples. Studies on seed insect pests of forest trees. 11: Oxalidaceae through Aceraceae. It is a prolific seed producer and establishes readily. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp, Wali-ur-Rehman, 1993. - Air-dry and basic density data for 172 timbers. Toona ciliata Roem., Syn. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 1846. ; 3 ref, Khatta V, Katoch BS, 1983. Coppicing to convert cull Australian Toon, Tropical Ash to acceptable trees. Embryo about 5 mm long. Wagner et al. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Pap. Muell.) Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Properties, processing and uses. Cedrela in the Malay Peninsula. Barks as a source of oxalic acid - I. Indian Forester, 111(7):538-541; 3 ref, Lane-Poole, CE, 1925. Growth and photosynthetic response to light and nutrients of Flindersia brayleyana F. ; 25 ref, Fuentes FR, 1979. Toona ciliata syn australis (This plant is not on the Australian Noxious Weed List) A native of New South Wales and Queensland where it prefers heavy, moist soils in a protected, sunny position. Chev., T. sureni (Blume) Merr., T. ciliata M. Roem. The PLANTS Database. In China and Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, the young leaves of Toona sinensis or commonly known as Chinese Mahogany is used to make Toona paste, which is used as a condiment to serve with plain rice porridge as breakfast and simple meals, or to enhance the flavour of a dish or soup. ], Mueller F von, 1881. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications, USDA-NRCS, 2015. The Australian population was formerly treated as distinct species under the name Toona australis. Paintability of four woods in Hawaii. var. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. The PLANTS Database. Language Common: Indian mahogany, Red cedar, Surian: Wiki: wikipedia: Links: ars-grin theplantlist: Description: oon is a large deciduous tree generally with a wide spreading and handsome crown attaining a height of 45 m and a stem diameter of 2 m. Multipurpose tree species for small-farm use. Tree improvement in Malawi. Forests, 6(4):1094-1106., Little EL, Skolmen RG, 1989. T. ciliata is a large forest tree in the mahogany family, native to Australia and Asia, but introduced elsewhere as a shade tree and for its fast-growing aspect and red timber. Powdery mildew of toon in Almora,,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, John Larmour/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products. ], Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. Toona is closely related to Cedrela, which has been repeatedly united with and separated from Toona since 1840., Lori GA, Sanchez JV, Stehr AM, 1994. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 4(2-3):60-69; 4 ref, Rai SN, 1985. Features: A fast growing, majestic tree, with a spreading habit, renowned for its dark red fragrant timber, Grey textured bark, russet red new foliage, and sprays of small, white aromatic flowers. The potential value of Toona species (Meliaceae) as multipurpose and plantation trees in Southeast Asia. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH, Burkill IH, 1930. [Comportamento do 'cedro australiano', Toona ciliata M. Roem. It is an early-successional pioneer that spreads rapidly in cleared areas or in disturbed forests (Weber, 2003). of Agriculture. Indian Bee Journal, 52(1-4):34-35; Bj, Harsh NSK, Tiwari CK, Nath V, 1992. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15(1-2):299-315; 39 ref, Todaria NP, Negi AK, 1995. U. Holzverwert; Wien 19(5): 77-9, Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 16(1):26-35; 28 ref, Bhattacharyya A, Yadav RR, Borgaonkar HP, Pant GB, 1992. This makes them unsuitable to try and grow as a forestry tree for the purpose of harvesting the timber. Characteristics of some important forest trees and agroforestry species in the Pacific region. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. Indian woods: their identification, properties and uses. In the cooler parts of its range, the tree is usually leafless during the winter, and in spring the newly emerging leaves are bright red and distinctive in the forest canopy, before becoming bronze-tipped and finally green (Boland et al., 2006). Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 43(1):27-31, Wali-ur-Rehman, 1993. Comparative studies of wood seasoning with a special reference to solar drying. Proceedings of an international workshop held 2-5 Nov 1987 in Pattaya, Thailand. The fruit is a capsule. Cytology and reproductive biology of Meliaceae. Coun. Agroforestry systems in Latin America, GBIF, 2015. The bark is grey to brown, fissured and flaky (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). For. Forest trees of Australia. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Report to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Lemmens RHMJ, 2008. Running cattle under trees: an experiment in agroforestry. In Australia, other trees commonly associated with T. ciliata include the booyongs Argyrodendron trifoliolatum and A. actinophyllum, the carabeens Geissois benthamiana and Sloanea woollsii, sassafras (Doryphora sassafras) and, more rarely, the hoop pine or Queensland pine, Araucaria cunninghamii (Boland et al., 2006). Woolia on the Richmond River, Mamin & Mugurpul near Brisbane, and Woota at Wide Bay. Interrelated effects of temperature and container on longevity of Toona ciliata M. Roem seed. Fruits glabrous, about 15-20 mm long before dehiscing. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report., Cook DK, Freeman S, 1997. Plantation trees., Invasive Species South Africa, 2012. [Estudio xilologico de algunas especies de Cedrela y Toona.] A note on the natural termite resistance of some Indian timbers with reference to heartwood extractives. Revised edition. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Kandy, Sri Lanka, 20-23 August 1996, 81-84; 5 ref, Viga WM, 1976. Trees in open situations produce seed after 6–8 years (Fenton et al., 1977).
2020 toona ciliata fruit